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This article offers a sociological analysis of the jurisprudence of the European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR). Adopting a sociological jurisprudence approach, the article aims to demonstrate the unique and valuable contribution that sociology can make to understanding key aspects of international human rights law. Whilst the article seeks to develop an agenda for critical sociological research on human rights law, it also aims to persuade those charged with the supervision of human rights of the value of sociological analysis. To achieve this, the article focuses on three separate but inter‐related aspects of ECtHR jurisprudence: first, it considers the ECtHR's approach to consensus in its adjudication of human rights complaints; second, it examines the social control implications of the ECtHR's decisions and judgments; and third, it assesses how conceptualizations of social identity are often foundational to the ECtHR's reasoning.  相似文献   
This article draws on a case study of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) and queer politics in Vermont to explain the conditions under which radical discourse gains and loses a public voice. In contrast to claims that the marginalization of queer discourse is due to silencing by LGBT rights activists or to litigation strategies, we argue that variation in queer discourse over time is the result of the co‐optation of queer discourse and goals by opponents. Extending the social movement literature on frame variation, we argue that opponents co‐opt discourse when they adopt aspects of the content of a movement's discourse, while subverting its intent. We show that conservative LGBT rights opponents co‐opted queer discourse. As a result, queer positions lost their viability as the discursive field in which those arguments were made was fundamentally altered. Because queer positions became less tenable, we see the withdrawal of queer discourse from the mainstream and alternative LGBT media. Our work both supports and builds on research on frame variation by demonstrating how discourse can change over time in response to the interplay between changing aspects of the political and cultural landscape and the discourse of opponents.  相似文献   
This article examined the theoretical meanings of pension rights and analyzed their effects on women's economic risks in developed countries. First, based on the status of a citizen, worker, parent, and spouse, this study investigated how pension benefits are guaranteed as a citizen regardless of work history, the degree to which women's disadvantageous situations in the labor market and unpaid work are compensated by public pension as workers and parents, and how marital status is treated in the different pension systems. Second, analysis of the effect of pension rights showed that individual rights is a significant factor to prevent economic risks of elderly women. Derived rights did not seem to secure the economic welfare of elderly women, at least in a comparative context. This finding suggested that developing individual rights, rather than derived rights, is the way to guarantee long‐term elderly women's economic welfare.  相似文献   
We developed a stochastic model for quantitative risk assessment for the Schistosoma mansoni (SM) parasite, which causes an endemic disease of public concern. The model provides answers in a useful format for public health decisions, uses data and expert opinion, and can be applied to any landscape where the snail Biomphalaria glabrata is the main intermediate host (South and Central America, the Caribbean, and Africa). It incorporates several realistic and case‐specific features: stage‐structured parasite populations, periodic praziquantel (PZQ) drug treatment for humans, density dependence, extreme events (prolonged rainfall), site‐specific sanitation quality, environmental stochasticity, monthly rainfall variation, uncertainty in parameters, and spatial dynamics. We parameterize the model through a real‐world application in the district of Porto de Galinhas (PG), one of the main touristic destinations in Brazil, where previous studies identified four parasite populations within the metapopulation. The results provide a good approximation of the dynamics of the system and are in agreement with our field observations, i.e., the lack of basic infrastructure (sanitation level and health programs) makes PG a suitable habitat for the persistence and growth of a parasite metapopulation. We quantify the risk of SM metapopulation explosion and quasi‐extinction and the time to metapopulation explosion and quasi‐extinction. We evaluate the sensitivity of the results under varying scenarios of future periodic PZQ treatment (based on the Brazilian Ministry of Health's plan) and sanitation quality. We conclude that the plan might be useful to slow SM metapopulation growth but not to control it. Additional investments in better sanitation are necessary.  相似文献   
正义是什么?这是一个曾经困扰了人类二千年的难题。西方古代的思想家曾经给予了不同的答案。在17世纪,基于"人权保障"和"权力制约"的正义观被提出,到20世纪中叶在全世界获得了基本共识。但是就每一个具体国家而言,正义社会的建设内容本身需要根据各自的国情和时代要求而确定。基于生产力落后以及封建官僚传统这一国情,我国正义社会的建立具有鲜明特色:以"生存权保障"为核心建立权利保障制度,以"反腐倡廉"为基础建立权力监督制度。  相似文献   
论嫦娥工程专利保护制度的完善   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
目前,中国关于嫦娥工程专利保护的法律规定主要涉及权属制度、激励机制、管理机制以及专利申请程序等方面的内容,但随着中国国防科研体制的改革和嫦娥工程的市场化运作,现有专利保护制度忽视了科研单位专利权的保护,对职务发明人权益保障乏力,且存在管理机构协调性差、专利申请程序不合理等问题。因此,完善嫦娥工程专利保护制度需从明确专利权属方面入手,激励项目承担者的创新积极性,同时健全专利管理和转化机制,发挥航天专利对国民经济和社会的带动作用,并通过完善国际合作中知识产权保护配套法律,提高嫦娥工程专利的国际保护水平。  相似文献   
股东优先购买权体现出有限责任公司人合性与资合性之间的冲突。中国对于股东优先购买权的法律规范存在缺陷,其根本原因在于缺乏一套体系性的股东优先购买权理论。股东优先购买权本质上是系列性权利组合,而非单一的权利,具体包括资格维持请求权、告知请求权、强制缔约权和优先受领权。股东于其取得股东身份时取得优先购买权,并于此时得以行使。至于优先购买权的行使期限,则不宜做过多理论上的探讨,而应当交由立法者根据本国国情加以规定。  相似文献   
我国集体林权制度改革后,虽然林农林地经营的生产积极性大为提高,但林地的分散化使得林业经营的规模效应下降。江西是林权改革的试点省份,共有94个示范性林农合作组织。依据从这些组织获得的数据进行回归分析后的结果显示:林农合作组织的规模、林权改革制度和林农经营范围对合作组织的收入均有一定程度的影响。因此,政府应鼓励林农合作组织进行规模扩张,给予合作组织资金和财政上的支持,为多种合作组织模式创造良好环境,加强对合作组织的内部管理,为合作组织向下游产业发展提供支持。  相似文献   
城乡二元体制下,我国农地管理制度之首要目的在于限制农地权利,剥夺集体与农民的农地发展利益为工业化提供资金积累。基于此,农地管理制度具有管制过度、双重不平等以及忽视农地权利主体参与等特征。其规范配置以禁止性与强制性等强行性规范为核心。随着我国进入破除城乡二元结构、实现城乡一体化发展的新阶段,农地管理制度应成为工业反哺农业的有力保障。它应该确立扩大自治、实现形式平等与实质平等有机结合以及强化民主参与的立法理念。修改后农地管理制度的规范配置要弱化强行性规范的核心地位并减少其数量,增加任意性规范与倡导性规范的数量,注重它们在农地管理中的功能发挥。  相似文献   
Mark Gibbs 《Risk analysis》2011,31(11):1784-1788
Ecological risk assessment embodied in an adaptive management framework is becoming the global standard approach for formally assessing and managing the ecological risks of technology and development. Ensuring the continual improvement of ecological risk assessment approaches is partly achieved through the dissemination of not only the types of risk assessment approaches used, but also their efficacy. While there is an increasing body of literature describing the results of general comparisons between alternate risk assessment methods and models, there is a paucity of literature that post hoc assesses the performance of specific predictions based on an assessment of risk and the effectiveness of the particular model used to predict the risk. This is especially the case where risk assessments have been used to grant consent or approval for the construction of major infrastructure projects. While postconstruction environmental monitoring is increasingly commonplace, it is not common for a postconstruction assessment of the accuracy and performance of the ecological risk assessment and underpinning model to be undertaken. Without this “assessment of the assessment,” it is difficult for other practitioners to gain insight into the performance of the approach and models used and therefore, as argued here, this limits the rate of improvement of risk assessment approaches.  相似文献   
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