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In this comparative study, the authors analyse the relationships between industrial relations and workforce or wage adjustments in response to the 2007–08 crisis, using two highly comparable establishment‐level surveys conducted in Great Britain (WERS) and France (REPONSE) in 2010–12. Notwithstanding contextual differences in the countries’ productive systems and the timing and impact of the crisis, the relationships between industrial relations and adjustment strategies appear to have been similar (trade union presence not preventing adjustments). Differences in industrial relations are therefore not found to provide an explanation for the different modes of adjustment observed at the macroeconomic level.  相似文献   
For architect Oskar G. Stonorov (1905–70) and labour leader Walter P. Reuther (1907–70) unions were not simply instruments for collective bargaining. They were also agents for transforming established social practices that denied the working class access to decent housing, parks and art; discriminated against African Americans; and destroyed the natural environment. Architecture and site planning were key to this transformation as they addressed concerns of social justice and environmental quality. Stonorov and Reuther shared an aesthetic agenda as well – to expose workers to the emancipating beauty of modern design – as they believed well-designed housing contributed to both their personal lives and productivity at work. From 1941 until their deaths in 1970 they devised plans for workers' housing and town planning, sculpture, urban renewal and environmentally sensitive site planning. They sought to involve workers in the design process, mark union territory on former elite-owned properties, give control of housing production to organized labour and advance workers' educational opportunities. This article examines their architectural endeavours as part of a labour narrative and as an index of the turbulent social and political changes taking place from the inter-war years to 1970.  相似文献   
重点介绍伊森巴德·金德姆·布鲁内尔(Isambard Kingdom Brunel)的生平和所取得的主要成就。布鲁内尔是工业革命时代英国著名的工程师,因其卓越的工程成就,在英国乃至欧洲有重要的影响。他出身工程世家,曾在法国学习工程专业,后回国跟随父亲参加工程实践,逐步成长为优秀的土木和机械工程师。曾设计建设克利夫顿斜拉桥、大西线铁路,设计多艘大型蒸汽轮船(大西号、大不列颠号和大东号),主持建设多座桥梁、隧道以及医院等。正是布鲁内尔的巨大贡献,使英国的公共交通和现代工程建造有了质的飞跃。  相似文献   
作为公羊学的核心内容之一,“大一统”说与《尚书·洪范》的“建用皇极”说有着深刻的思想关联。首先,二者皆以“君极”之立作为王道之行的关键因素;其次,二者皆以“王正”作为“君极”之立的基本前提,且谓基于此,“一统”之义方得成立;再次,二者皆蕴含了改元立制以厚养万民之义。无论是“一统”说还是“皇极”论,固然均表现出鲜明的尊君色彩,但二者所强调的“归元”或“君极”思想实则又内涵着抑君乃至“革命”之意。因此,“大一统”并非简单地意味着思想、观念、文化、制度等方面的绝对统一化,而“皇极”论也并非主张君主专制。在儒家看来,君王之于天下人心,本质上不过起着召唤与凝聚的作用。  相似文献   
20世纪50年代末60年代初中国共产党开展了"大跃进"运动。"大跃进"运动的决策是错误的。"大跃进"政策执行是贯彻"大跃进"政策过程的关键环节,执行的结果,由于多种因素的影响,出现了机械执行、野蛮执行和扩大范围执行等偏差。这些偏差使"大跃进"决策的消极后果错上加错,给人民群众和国家带来了严重的伤害。从"大跃进"政策执行的视角分析、总结"大跃进"政策制定及执行的经验教训,能够从中获得有益的启示。  相似文献   
We compare family and parental effects on child verbal facility, verbal achievement and mathematics achievement in the United States and Great Britain. We study 3,438 5–13 year-old children from the 1994 NLSY Child-Mother Data Set and 1429 same-aged children from the National Child Development Study, also known as the British Child. Multivariate analyses suggest that the processes through which families invest in child cognition are similar across societies, with factors including low birth weight, child health, maternal cognition, family size and children's home environments being consequential. We conclude that parental investments are equally important across the two societies. The more developed welfare state in Great Britain does not notably compensate for parental investments in that society, although it may play a greater role when parental resources are absent or stretched thin.  相似文献   
This study examined the effectiveness of several financial strategies for nonprofit organizations in fighting the Great Recession. Using data from human services and community improvement organizations in the state of New Jersey, we tested hypotheses about the relationships between three measures of financial sustainability and various fundraising efforts and financial indicators. We found that (1) except for strong external funding relationships, funding efforts were generally not effective in enhancing financial sustainability during the crisis; (2) higher operating margin and equity ratio improved an organization's ability to generate revenue and maintain expense levels, but higher debt ratio and administrative cost ratio were generally harmful; and (3) revenue diversification might aggravate fiscal stress and cause more expense cuts in a severe crisis. These findings improve our understanding of the mechanics of nonprofit management during times of harsh fiscal conditions and suggest useful ways for nonprofit organizations to navigate future financial crises.  相似文献   
The rise of the knowledge economy resulted in higher levels of income inequality in the United States and forced many to question the Kuznets Inverted‐U hypothesis. However, this study argues that the establishment of a knowledge economy does not negate the importance of employment shifts for income inequality. Instead, the expansion of knowledge employment alters the major sectors that are responsible for the overall distribution of income. To this end, this article presents the key argument that the current service–knowledge transition impacts income inequality trends, of today, in a way that is similar to the agricultural–industrial transition, of the past. According to the autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity regressions, the agricultural–industrial transition returns stronger associations with income inequality in the United States before 1950. The agricultural–industrial transition's impact diminishes thereafter as the service–knowledge transition shares a more robust association with income inequality after 1980.  相似文献   
刘亦明 《云梦学刊》2012,33(2):48-52
乔纳森·爱德华兹在领导美国殖民地时期大觉醒运动的过程中,通过上帝的至高无上性、宗教情感论、千禧年主义和经济理论四个方面的宗教思想对人们进行布道,试图改变基督教信仰日益淡漠的问题。他的宗教思想唤醒了人们的宗教热情,改善了北美殖民地的道德水平,为美国革命奠定了理论基础,并在一定程度上促进了北美殖民地经济的发展。  相似文献   
瑶人历史上的迁徙在瑶族史诗《盘王大歌》中有较详细的记载,相关的官修史籍也可旁证。瑶人的迁徙在文化意识上的特征主要体现在迁徙的被迫性和始终伴随着伤感与辛酸.瑶人每一次迁徙都是走入更遥远的山林.走入莽荒.离中原文明愈来愈远。另一方面,他们迁徙时也追求人与自然的和谐,在苦难中体现出一个民族坚忍、自强、奋斗、不屈的精神。  相似文献   
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