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1.
近日对我国著名电子光学和光电子成像专家周立伟院士进行了访谈。访谈中,周院士首先分享了自己学习英语和俄语的经历,强调了自主学习能力的重要性;其次,周院士详细论述了外语教学,尤其是英语教学的必要性,指出英语能力与科学研究紧密相关,英语教学不可或缺;之后周院士分析了研究生在英语学习和科学研究方面存在的问题,并讨论了大学中开设人文课程的迫切性;最后,周院士对上理工师生提出了建议与期望。  相似文献   
2.
志愿服务乡村是社会参与人才振兴战略的重要方式,大学生在其中承担着重要角色。“乡愁文化”和“社会理性”是大学生志愿服务乡村缘由所在;性别、年级、学校类型、了解程度和志愿组织对大学生志愿服务乡村有显著影响。大学生志愿服务的着力点在于智力支持且具有文教活动倾向性,但也存在意愿与行动脱节、认知流于表面、能动性不强、缺乏思想引领以及对小微志愿组织的支持缺位等问题。乡愁文化嵌入大学文化、引入激励机制、打造志愿组织“大家庭”、牢守宣传育人“主阵地”、强化智力支持优势、补齐理论技能短板、关爱“小微组织”成长、构建“三位一体”支撑体系等可有效优化大学生志愿服务乡村。  相似文献   
3.
Damage models for natural hazards are used for decision making on reducing and transferring risk. The damage estimates from these models depend on many variables and their complex sometimes nonlinear relationships with the damage. In recent years, data‐driven modeling techniques have been used to capture those relationships. The available data to build such models are often limited. Therefore, in practice it is usually necessary to transfer models to a different context. In this article, we show that this implies the samples used to build the model are often not fully representative for the situation where they need to be applied on, which leads to a “sample selection bias.” In this article, we enhance data‐driven damage models by applying methods, not previously applied to damage modeling, to correct for this bias before the machine learning (ML) models are trained. We demonstrate this with case studies on flooding in Europe, and typhoon wind damage in the Philippines. Two sample selection bias correction methods from the ML literature are applied and one of these methods is also adjusted to our problem. These three methods are combined with stochastic generation of synthetic damage data. We demonstrate that for both case studies, the sample selection bias correction techniques reduce model errors, especially for the mean bias error this reduction can be larger than 30%. The novel combination with stochastic data generation seems to enhance these techniques. This shows that sample selection bias correction methods are beneficial for damage model transfer.  相似文献   
4.
Environmental scanning is a broadly defined concept, having first received attention from scholars in the late 1960s. Over the years a number of similar and overlapping constructs have emerged in management literature. The aim of this study, via a systematic review and thematic analysis of relevant empirical research, is to consolidate foundation environmental scanning knowledge, demonstrate how scanning research has developed and fragmented over time, and propose an agenda for future research. The first contribution of our review is a new typology of environmental scanning research made up of five discrete research views, which provides a more comprehensive and contemporary overview of the field than previous studies. The second is a proposed agenda for future research that explicitly acknowledges the role of technology, an area that is presently underdeveloped in foundation scanning literature. The third contribution is to signpost future directions for research on scanning and organisational performance using a number of theoretical perspectives. The overall outcome of our review is to move scanning research on from increasingly incremental contributions concerned with context to a place where the changing role of technology and the mechanisms through which environmental scanning contributes to competitive advantage can be more thoroughly understood.  相似文献   
5.
A recent literature emphasizes that gender differences in the labor market may in part be driven by a gender gap in willingness to compete. However, whereas experiments in this literature typically investigate willingness to compete in private environments, real world competitions often have a more public nature, which introduces potential social image concerns. If such image concerns are important, and men and women differ in the degree to which they want to be seen as competitive, making tournament entry decisions publicly observable may further exacerbate the gender gap. We test this prediction using a laboratory experiment (N = 784) that varies the degree to which the decision to compete, and its outcome, is publicly observable. We find that public observability does not alter the magnitude of the gender gap in willingness to compete in an economically or statistically significant way.  相似文献   
6.
BackgroundHaving a positive childbirth experience is an increasingly valued outcome. Few studies evaluated the women’s satisfaction with childbirth through face-to-face interviews out of the health service environment. The objective of this study was to identify factors associated with a higher level of satisfaction with the childbirth experience among Brazilian women.MethodsThis cross-sectional study involved 287 women giving birth in two hospitals in southern Brazil. Women who gave birth to healthy newborns at term were randomly selected. Face-to-face interviews were conducted 31–37 days after delivery, at the mothers’ homes, using a structured questionnaire. Satisfaction with the childbirth experience was measured using a Likert-type scale ranging from very satisfied to very dissatisfied. Prevalence ratios (PR) were estimated using Poisson regression with robust variance.ResultsFollowing hierarchical multivariate analysis, the following factors remained associated with a higher level of satisfaction with the childbirth experience: being satisfied with antenatal care (PR = 1.30; 95% confidence interval [95%CI] = 1.06−1.59), understanding the information provided by health professionals during labor and delivery (PR = 1.40; 95%CI = 1.01−1.95), not having reported disrespect and abuse (PR = 1.53; 95%CI = 1.01−2.31), and having had the baby put to the breast within the first hour of life (PR = 1.63; 95%CI = 1.26−2.11). No association was observed with type of delivery or hospital status (public or private).ConclusionsA higher level of satisfaction with the childbirth experience is related to satisfactory antenatal care, a non-abusive, respectful, and informative environment during childbirth, and to the opportunity to breastfeed the baby within the first hour of life. In clinical practice, greater attention to these basic principles of care during pregnancy and delivery could provide more positive experiences during birth.  相似文献   
7.
From the economical viewpoint in reliability theory, this paper addresses a scheduling replacement problem for a single operating system which works at random times for multiple jobs. The system is subject to stochastic failure which results the imperfect maintenance activity based on some random failure mechanism: minimal repair due to type-I (repairable) failure, or corrective replacement due to type-II (non-repairable) failure. Three scheduling models for the system with multiple jobs are considered: a single work, N tandem works, and N parallel works. To control the deterioration process, the preventive replacement is planned to undergo at a scheduling time T or the job's completion time of for each model. The objective is to determine the optimal scheduling parameters (T* or N*) that minimizes the mean cost rate function in a finite time horizon for each model. A numerical example is provided to illustrate the proposed analytical model. Because the framework and analysis are general, the proposed models extend several existing results.  相似文献   
8.
Understanding the complex relationships between childcare, education and work is crucial to acknowledging how young mothers express agency in their pathways to economic independence. Instead of considering them as a policy target group at risk for multiple reasons, this research reverses the perspective by focusing on young mothers’ agency in school and paid employment. The study is set in the Netherlands, where economic independence has become a focal point of social policy and practice, especially for young people. It explores how young mothers navigate norms and structures of education and employment, drawing on 18 months of participant observation and 41 semi-structured interviews with young mothers. Notions of ‘everyday’ and ‘bounded’ agency are used in analysing structural limitations (e.g. irregular working hours in ‘women’s jobs’, a lack of maternity leave at school) and norms (e.g. completing higher education and finding a good job versus being primary caretakers, enjoying children and being role models). School and workplace structures reinforce contradictory discourses of motherhood and economic independence. Young mothers exhibit agency in considering their options around job security, work experience, wages, student loans and spending time with children. In doing so, they navigate structural and normative collisions of economic independence and mothering.  相似文献   
9.
体验式学习的内涵随着时代的发展而逐渐丰富和深化,但无论其如何演变,直接经验和反思始终是体验式学习这一概念的内核。体验式学习理念渗透于美国教育文化之中。具体表现在:小学阶段的教育以学生的真实感知为基础,注重为学生提供真实体验的机会和激发学生的学习兴趣;中学尤其是高中阶段的教育以学生的真实体验为基础,注重为学生提供在新情境中检验所学知识的机会,注重学生知识、技能的内化吸收。美国中小学体验式学习的实施经验可为我国基础教育课程改革提供如下启示:(1)进一步树立和推广体验式学习理念;(2)创设学生进行真实体验的教学环境;(3)注重实施基于学生体验式学习的表现性评价。  相似文献   
10.
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