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Social protection has become a policy of choice to address rising vulnerabilities and inequalities in Africa. Successful implementation of social protection polices requires proliferation of competent social workers. This article first abstracts elements of an emerging international norm in a comprehensive system for the development and management of social workers and then reviews the extent to which Ethiopia has introduced these elements. It reveals that Ethiopia is in a very early stage in putting in place almost all identified elements of such a system. Recent measures that the Ethiopian government is taking to address this gap are highlighted by way of conclusion.  相似文献   
We developed a stochastic model for quantitative risk assessment for the Schistosoma mansoni (SM) parasite, which causes an endemic disease of public concern. The model provides answers in a useful format for public health decisions, uses data and expert opinion, and can be applied to any landscape where the snail Biomphalaria glabrata is the main intermediate host (South and Central America, the Caribbean, and Africa). It incorporates several realistic and case‐specific features: stage‐structured parasite populations, periodic praziquantel (PZQ) drug treatment for humans, density dependence, extreme events (prolonged rainfall), site‐specific sanitation quality, environmental stochasticity, monthly rainfall variation, uncertainty in parameters, and spatial dynamics. We parameterize the model through a real‐world application in the district of Porto de Galinhas (PG), one of the main touristic destinations in Brazil, where previous studies identified four parasite populations within the metapopulation. The results provide a good approximation of the dynamics of the system and are in agreement with our field observations, i.e., the lack of basic infrastructure (sanitation level and health programs) makes PG a suitable habitat for the persistence and growth of a parasite metapopulation. We quantify the risk of SM metapopulation explosion and quasi‐extinction and the time to metapopulation explosion and quasi‐extinction. We evaluate the sensitivity of the results under varying scenarios of future periodic PZQ treatment (based on the Brazilian Ministry of Health's plan) and sanitation quality. We conclude that the plan might be useful to slow SM metapopulation growth but not to control it. Additional investments in better sanitation are necessary.  相似文献   
通过对盐城阜宁县芦蒲镇1 157名11~14岁留守儿童的问卷调查和深入访谈发现,该地留守儿童的性问题绝大多数属于边缘性性行为,其中"说下流话"现象较为突出,有此体验的学生达半数左右;有45例自诉曾遭受来自异性侵害,而对这类严重犯罪行为,学校及地方政府尚未予以关注。农村学校应该杜绝说下流话现象,普及青春期性健康知识,增强留守儿童自我保护意识,政府应严厉打击针对留守儿童的犯罪行为,保护农村留守儿童不受性侵。  相似文献   
正义是什么?这是一个曾经困扰了人类二千年的难题。西方古代的思想家曾经给予了不同的答案。在17世纪,基于"人权保障"和"权力制约"的正义观被提出,到20世纪中叶在全世界获得了基本共识。但是就每一个具体国家而言,正义社会的建设内容本身需要根据各自的国情和时代要求而确定。基于生产力落后以及封建官僚传统这一国情,我国正义社会的建立具有鲜明特色:以"生存权保障"为核心建立权利保障制度,以"反腐倡廉"为基础建立权力监督制度。  相似文献   
政府是非物质文化遗产保护中的主导者,应该承担提供资金保障、制定政策法规、组织管理保护主体和传承主体、建立良好的管理体制机制以及监管保护效果的职责。而在非物质文化遗产保护实践中政府多存在管办不分、管理的越位缺位等职责混乱现象,导致非物质文化遗产保护中出现建设性破坏、保护性破坏、保护主体缺失以及保护环境不利等问题。结合先进国家的经验指出,树立正确的非遗保护理念是政府正确履行职责的前提;明确职责定位是正确履行职责的保障;合理履行职责可以避免管办不分、管理缺位越位的问题;加强监督考核机制,可以保障政府职责履行效能。  相似文献   
美国的"无辜物主抗辩"经历了从无到有,从弱到强的发展历程。在漫长的形成与发展过程中,美国法律逐渐探索出根植于美国法治土壤的独特的第三人财产保护制度。现行的"无辜物主抗辩"也为美国民事没收制度带来了新的发展力量。从历史发展的角度了解美国"无辜物主抗辩"的由来,并深入分析《美国法典》现行的"无辜物主抗辩"的相关概念及其适用,既是对美国民事没收程序的深入了解,更是中国今后在第三人财产保护制度上可以借鉴与参考的理论基础。  相似文献   
论嫦娥工程专利保护制度的完善   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
目前,中国关于嫦娥工程专利保护的法律规定主要涉及权属制度、激励机制、管理机制以及专利申请程序等方面的内容,但随着中国国防科研体制的改革和嫦娥工程的市场化运作,现有专利保护制度忽视了科研单位专利权的保护,对职务发明人权益保障乏力,且存在管理机构协调性差、专利申请程序不合理等问题。因此,完善嫦娥工程专利保护制度需从明确专利权属方面入手,激励项目承担者的创新积极性,同时健全专利管理和转化机制,发挥航天专利对国民经济和社会的带动作用,并通过完善国际合作中知识产权保护配套法律,提高嫦娥工程专利的国际保护水平。  相似文献   
Mark Gibbs 《Risk analysis》2011,31(11):1784-1788
Ecological risk assessment embodied in an adaptive management framework is becoming the global standard approach for formally assessing and managing the ecological risks of technology and development. Ensuring the continual improvement of ecological risk assessment approaches is partly achieved through the dissemination of not only the types of risk assessment approaches used, but also their efficacy. While there is an increasing body of literature describing the results of general comparisons between alternate risk assessment methods and models, there is a paucity of literature that post hoc assesses the performance of specific predictions based on an assessment of risk and the effectiveness of the particular model used to predict the risk. This is especially the case where risk assessments have been used to grant consent or approval for the construction of major infrastructure projects. While postconstruction environmental monitoring is increasingly commonplace, it is not common for a postconstruction assessment of the accuracy and performance of the ecological risk assessment and underpinning model to be undertaken. Without this “assessment of the assessment,” it is difficult for other practitioners to gain insight into the performance of the approach and models used and therefore, as argued here, this limits the rate of improvement of risk assessment approaches.  相似文献   
Information and communication technologies (ICTs) are increasingly pervasive and continue to reshape our environment. This trend carries different risks. Therefore, the early sensitization of people to these risks, as well as improving their capacity for protective coping behavior, is essential. Based on the protection motivation theory (PMT), we examined with structural equation modeling the relationships between different components of threat and coping appraisal to explain protective and nonprotective responses. Calculations were performed with data from a representative survey on perception and use of ICT among German residents (N= 5,030). Our findings largely supported the proposed model: an increased perceived threat was positively related to the intentions to react protectively and nonprotectively. Perceived coping efficacy increased the protective and decreased the nonprotective responses. Negative affect enhanced the perceived threat and the nonprotective response, but inhibited protective intentions. The implications of these findings on how to sensitize people to the risks of these new technologies are outlined.  相似文献   
公众参与环境保护是现代民主政治的必然要求,也是我国环境法治发展的方向.然而,煤矿环境保护公众参与法治建设已不能满足于实际需要.尚存在诸如公众参与权不明确,参与范围有限,环境信息公开存在诸多限制等现实问题,民众的相关权益也难以保障.故应当尽快建立煤矿环境保公众参与法律制度.  相似文献   
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