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1.
In foot‐and‐mouth disease (FMD) free countries, the occurrence of an FMD outbreak is a rare event with potentially large economic losses. We explore the dynamic effects of an FMD outbreak on market variables and economic surplus taking into account the largely neglected issue of farm bankruptcy. Simulations are performed on a stylized agricultural economy, which is a net exporter before the outbreak. We find complex dynamic market effects when the farm credit market suffers from information imperfections leading to farm closure. Welfare effects are also dramatically altered. Domestic consumers may lose in the long run from an FMD outbreak because domestic supply contracts. On the other hand, farmers able to resist this event may ultimately gain. Our analysis also shows that these effects are not monotone, making any efficient policy response to this catastrophic event quite challenging.  相似文献   
2.
In the past few decades, there has been a rise in the number of single, unmarried Chinese professional women, which is known as the sheng nu or “leftover women” phenomenon. Through an interactionist grounded theory method, this study has located the interactional constraints faced by 50 single Chinese professional women that were issued by their male romantic partners and parents, respectively. “Discriminatory” and “controlling” gendered constraints issued by the women's male suitors and partners reflected the persistence of the Chinese patriarchal structure, and this was found to be the leading cause of the women being “leftover” in the marriage market. Parents' traditional views continued to exert strong influences on the women's marital choices, but this was seen to conflict with their more “modern” views toward advocating and supporting the women's strong economic achievements. The four different types of Chinese professional women that were constructed based on their different partner choice strategies not only gave rise to an in‐depth and nuanced understanding of the sheng nu phenomenon in China, but could also be generalized toward understanding the marital choices of single professional women in other patriarchal societies who faced similar dilemmas in reconciling interactional constraints imposed by men and parents alike.  相似文献   
3.
ABSTRACT

Asset-building programs, such as Individual Development Account (IDA) programs within social service agencies, assist low-income employed clients in building credit, purchasing affordable assets, and gaining wealth. This longitudinal exploratory study examines the credit outcomes of IDA programs to add to the knowledge concerning the effects of IDAs as an asset-building tool. Data were analyzed using a convenience sample of IDA participants and nonparticipants (N = 164), and the results indicated that initial credit score and history are associated with program participation. However, results also suggested that initial credit score is not a meaningful indicator of program completion, time to completion, or type of asset purchased for participants. Those who completed the IDA program within 2 years experienced the highest credit gains. Future research with larger samples is needed to further assess the impact of credit on program participation and completion and on whether credit gains are sustained.  相似文献   
4.
运用随机效应的变截距回归模型,以陕西省104个县域农村合作金融机构的数据为例,对农村合作金融机构信贷风险的影响因素进行了实证研究。结果表明:农村居民人均纯收入、财政支农、农业贷款市场份额和机构治理水平提高,农村合作金融机构不良贷款率显著下降。地方政府财政赤字越大,农村合作金融机构不良贷款率越高。从发展农业现代化,扩大财政支农乘数效用,降低农村金融门槛,完善金融机构治理机制和规范地方政府融资渠道等方面提出政策建议。  相似文献   
5.
乡村人居环境建设中的制度约束与优化路径   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
优化乡村人居环境,改善农户生活质量,统筹城乡发展是社会主义新农村建设的一项重要内容.目前我国乡村人居环境建设面临着基层组织管理制度、土地制度、户籍制度、投资制度和保障制度等方面的制度约束.针对一系列制度约束,从乡村人居环境建设内涵出发,构建了有利于促进乡村人居环境发展的新制度框架.应从创新农村市场经济制度,维护人居空间有序发展;完善财政转移支付制度,保障乡村人居公共物品供给;创新农村社区管理制度,重构乡村社会关系网络等方面进行制度创新.  相似文献   
6.
制度约束、行为变迁与乡村人居环境演化   总被引:2,自引:0,他引:2  
从制度约束和行为变迁的视角出发,构建一个乡村人居环境演变的理论框架,即从外部和内部两个维度来考察乡村人居环境演变。外部维度是指国家制度约束,乡村人居环境建设是在国家制度主导下发展的;而内部维度就是农户空间行为,即乡村人居环境建设的内生变量,包括农户的居住、就业、消费和交往等空间行为。乡村人居环境正是在国家制度主导和空间行为双重因素的作用下发展的。对中国改革开放以来的乡村人居环境演变进行了总结和反思,认为不同的制度安排背景下,农户空间行为特征、乡村人居环境演变动力及其效应存在较大差异;乡村人居环境建设过程的空间问题一直无法实现预期目标,需要我们给予反思和调整。  相似文献   
7.
事故调查结论是调查成果的集中反映,事故调查结论能否获得公众认可,关键在于其公信力的高低。事故调查结论的公信力,从主体角度表现为公众对事故调查结论的信任,从客体角度表现为事故调查结论自身所具有的社会信用。事故调查主体、事故调查结论的内容、形式与传播等因素,对事故调查结论的公信力具有影响。程序完备、证据充分、论证有力、结论可靠、处置适当是事故调查结论公信力的判断标准。树立正确理念、建立制度规范、引入质量体系、强化责任追究,是保障事故调查结论公信力的必要条件。  相似文献   
8.
We investigated two aspects of credit card repayment decisions: the extent to which the anchoring effect of minimum repayment information may be mitigated by information on alternative anchors, specifically repayments that would repay the balance in two years (Study 1) or nine months (Study 2); and the role of future repayment concern. In two experiments, three realistic credit card statements were presented with different outstanding balances. Participants, who were randomly allocated to one of four information conditions depending on supplementary information provided on the statements, stated how much they would repay that month. They were then asked about concerns they would have about repayment difficulties if they had a fixed consumer loan over three years. In Study 1 the alternative two-year repayment anchor had a negative effect on percent repayment, whereas in Study 2 the nine-month repayment anchor had a significant positive effect, especially for those with higher future repayment concern. Also, in both studies, future repayment concern had a direct inverse effect on repayment decisions which partially mediated the effect of disposable income. It is concluded that the addition to credit card statements of a table of cost and duration information for a range of repayment amounts may usefully support repayment decisions.  相似文献   
9.
战略性新兴产业发展需要大量的资金投入,过高的外部融资成本已经成为阻碍战略性新兴产业发展的重要因素.促进战略性新兴产业发展,已经成为一个亟待解决的问题.文章利用2011-2014年七大战略性新兴产业422家上市公司15个季度的面板数据,分别考察了中国银行业与股票市场发展对战略性新兴产业发展的影响.实证结果显示,七大战略性新兴产业的融资约束具有异质性,节能环保产业、高端装备制造业和生物医药产业融资约束较小,新材料、新一代信息技术、新能源汽车和新能源产业具有更大的融资约束.进一步研究发现,金融发展缓解了战略性新兴产业的融资约束,其中股票市场发展较银行发展更能缓解战略性新兴产业的融资约束.  相似文献   
10.
基于西北5省15个国家级贫困县152位信贷经理人的问卷调查,分析了小额信贷经理人的扶贫意愿、行为以及影响因素。经验研究结果表明:在调研的国家级贫困县中,尽管近六成小额信贷经理人向贫困户发放过贷款,但业务量总体较少,具有信贷扶贫意愿的不到2成;性别、教育背景、收入满意度、信贷决策自主性、放贷任务以及是否完成任务对信贷扶贫业务有显著影响;性别和信贷自主权对扶贫意愿具有显著影响。由此,在信贷扶贫项目选择信贷经理人时,采取差异化策略,有序放松信贷自主权,加强扶贫效果考核,对提高金融扶贫绩效会起到积极的作用。  相似文献   
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