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1.
The communication and regulation of risk has changed significantly over the past 30 years in Europe and to a noticeable but lesser extent in the United States. In Europe, this is partly due to a series of regulatory mishaps, ranging from mad cow disease in the United Kingdom to contamination of the blood supply in France. In the United States, general public confidence in the American government has been gradually declining for more than three decades, driven by a mix of cultural and political conflicts like negative political advertising, a corrosive news media, and cuts in regulatory budgets. While the former approach is based on an objective assessment of the risk, the latter is driven more by the perception of the risk, consumer sentiment, political will, and sectoral advocacy. In this article, the author examines three U.S.‐based food case studies (acrylamide, bisphenol A, and artificial food colorings) where regulations at the local and state levels are increasingly being based on perceived risk advocacy rather than on the most effective response to the risk, be it to food safety or public health, as defined by regulatory interpretation of existing data. In the final section, the author puts forward a series of recommendations for how U.S.‐based regulators can best handle those situations where the perceived risk is markedly different from the fact‐based risk, such as strengthening the communication departments of food regulatory agencies, training officials in risk communication, and working more proactively with neutral third‐party experts.  相似文献   
2.
2012年11月, 美国国防部出台新版《空间政策指令》, 就全面落实美国2010年《国家空间政策》、2011年《国家安全空间战略》进行了具体部署, 反映了美国对全球战略安全环境、空间环境的总体判断, 特别是反映了美国军事航天战略以及美国军方如何有效解决21世纪及未来的空间环境安全、空间防务安全、空间稳定及空间可持续发展等问题的新思路。通过对新版《空间政策指令》进行背景分析和内容解读, 提出了政策应对建议, 研判新形势下奥巴马总统第二任期内空间政策走向。  相似文献   
3.
This paper argues that China and the EU are destined to be partners in fighting for a second period of commitments for global climate change governance and shaping the post-Kyoto regime to meet the anticipated challenges of the 21st century. The basic idea backing this argumentation is the assessment that, in comparison with other nations (the United States, Russia, India, Japan and Canada), Europe and China would have most to lose if the upgrading of the Kyoto Protocol fails; and conversely, they would have most to win if the regime survives in a modernized form and with a more comprehensive application of international binding commitments. This is to say, the EU and China have no choice but to work together if they want to achieve their respective political objectives relating to the issue of global climate change in a less costly and more effective way.  相似文献   
4.
环渤海经济圈的海洋生态环境安全问题探讨   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
不论在我国区域经济发展中,还是在东北亚经济合作中,环渤海经济圈都占据重要的战略地位,注重在整体开发中解决生态环境安全问题成为当务之急.为此,应当站在全局高度透视时代背景,把握关键因素,分析产生原因,创意解决对策:转变观念,树立陆海并重思维;科技领先,推行绿色工程技术;健全法制,加大监管力度;创新制度,建立补偿机制;循环发展,减少源头排放.只有这样做,才能在环渤海经济圈整体开发中保障生态安全,铸就中国第三大经济增长极的国家战略品牌.  相似文献   
5.
Abstract

Objective: Determine the effects of a short-term, multi-faceted, point-of-selection intervention on college students’ perceptions and selection of 10 targeted healthful foods in a university dining hall and changes in their self-reported overall eating behaviors. Participants: 104 college students, (age 18–23) completed pre-I and post-I surveys. Methods: Pre-survey collected at dining hall in April 2007, followed by 3-week intervention then post-survey collected via email. Healthy choice indicators, large signs, table tents, flyers and colorful photographs with “benefit-based messages” promoted targeted foods. Response rate to both surveys was 38%. Results: Significantly more participants reported that healthful choices were clearly identified in the dining hall after the intervention. Over 20% of participants reported becoming more aware of healthful food choices in the dining hall after the intervention. Significant increases in self-reported intake were reported for cottage cheese and low-fat salad dressing, with a trend toward increased consumption of fresh fruit. Seven of the 14 assessed eating behaviors had significant changes in the desired direction. Increased awareness of healthful foods was the top reason for self-reported changes in overall eating behaviors. Conclusion: Short-term, multi-faceted, point-of-selection marketing of healthful foods in university dining halls may be beneficial for improving college students’ perceptions and selections of targeted healthful foods in the dining hall and may improve overall eating behaviors of college students.  相似文献   
6.
"粮食安全"是关系到国家发展与社会稳定的基本问题。在影响粮食安全的众多因素中,"耕地面积"是否重要,粮食安全是否需要既定耕地面积地保障,学术界在这些问题上一直存在较多的争议。文章利用陕西省相关社会统计数据,对陕西省"粮食安全"与"耕地面积"的关系进行了实证分析,并在此基础上预测出粮食安全的前提下一定时期陕西省所需耕地面积。研究结果表明:1990~2009年间陕西省粮食生产与耕地面积相关,但耕地面积并不是影响粮食生产的主要因素;在保持现有耕地面积相对稳定的基础上,依靠科技进步,提高粮食单产,是该省未来增强粮食生产能力的主要方向;按照以往技术进步比率计算,在保证粮食安全的前提下,2020、2030年陕西省保障粮食安全所需的耕地面积分别约为3 379.91千公顷、3 266.38千公顷。  相似文献   
7.
近年来,我国频繁爆发的食品安全危机事件使得食品安全问题已成为社会各界关注的焦点.文章在已有研究基础上,从我国现行分段式监管体制入手,阐述了由分段监管导致的监管职能、法律体系、安全标准和检测、认证体系中存在的漏洞及缺陷.并从明确政府部门职责、统一法律体系、完善食品安全标准和加强行业协会作用等方面提出现行食品安全监管体制改革的短期与长期思路.  相似文献   
8.
粮食物流体系是连接粮食生产和消费的重要一环,加快推进其现代化建设将有力保障我国的粮食安全。基于对现阶段中国粮食物流体系的全面调研,详细分析了我国粮食物流体系现代化建设的发展现状、存在问题和面临形势,并提出推进粮食物流体系现代化的策略。第一,提升粮食物流体系建设系统化水平,增强粮食流通能力;第二,加快粮食流通立法和标准化建设工作,打破要素流通制约;第三,提高粮食物流设施建设专业化水平,提升物流体系效能;第四,积极开展粮食物流体系信息化改革,优化资源配置效率;第五,统筹各地并优化资金配置,推进项目整体布局;第六,构建粮食流通“双循环”格局,培育国际化大粮商。  相似文献   
9.
Drawing from a survey conducted in Los Angeles, we examine perceptions of achievement and optimism about reaching the American dream among racial, ethnic, and nativity groups. We find blacks and Asian Americans less likely than whites to believe they have reached the American dream. Latinos stand out for their upbeat assessments, with naturalized citizens possessing a stronger sense of achievement and noncitizens generally optimistic that they will eventually fulfill the American dream. We discuss patterns of variation between the racial and ethnic groups as well as variation within each group. Notwithstanding interesting differences along lines of race, ethnicity, and nativity, we find no evidence that the nation’s changing ethnic stew has diluted faith in the American dream.  相似文献   
10.
The 2008 spike in world grain prices is widely recognised to have had serious impacts on food security and poverty, but these high grain prices are commonly described as low in historical terms – an inconsistency resulting from the use of advanced‐ and global‐economy price indices in calculating real prices. This ignores the high share of food in poor people's expenditures and the indirect effects of income growth on expenditure patterns of rich consumers. Poor consumers have not experienced the same falls in real food prices and are more vulnerable to price shocks. Different price indices must be developed to take account of differences between consumer groups.  相似文献   
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