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1.
A major focus of India's ongoing policy debate over labour market flexibilization has been the statutory requirement that firms employing 100 or more workers cannot dismiss employees without prior government permission. The case for repealing that requirement (or greatly increasing the workforce threshold) is notably underpinned by Basu, Fields and Debgupta (2009). Here, the author challenges their particular theoretical argument for hiring and firing at will based on the voluntary signing of contracts, demonstrating that their general policy conclusion is logically unsustainable even within the framework of that model. The case for labour market flexibilization through voluntary contracting thus remains unfounded.  相似文献   
2.
We examine the relationship between income inequality, poverty, and different types of crime. Our results are consistent with recent research in showing that inequality is unrelated to homicide rates when poverty is controlled. In our multi‐level analyses of the International Crime Victimization Survey we find that inequality is unrelated to assault, robbery, burglary, and theft when poverty is controlled. We argue that there are also theoretical reasons to doubt that the level of income inequality of a country affects the likelihood of criminal behaviour.  相似文献   
3.
Relative to White families, Black families have been described as relying on extended social networks to compensate for other social and economic disadvantages. The presence or absence of supportive social networks should be especially relevant to young couples entering marriage, but to date there has been little effort to describe the social networks of comparable Black and White newlyweds. The current study addressed this gap by drawing on interviews with 57 first‐married newlyweds from low‐income communities to compare the composition and structure of Black and White couples' duocentric social networks. The results indicated that low‐income Black couples entered marriage at a social disadvantage relative to White couples, with more family relationships but fewer positive relationships and fewer sources of emotional support (for wives), fewer connections to married individuals, and fewer shared relationships between spouses. Black couples' relative social disadvantages persisted even when various economic and demographic variables were controlled.  相似文献   
4.
贫困村互助资金填补了农村金融服务空白,缓解了贫困农户借款难题。通过5省50个贫困村2 656个农户样本,用DID方法分析互助资金对农户收入增加的影响。研究发现:互助资金有利于农户收入增长;互助资金对低收入农户、中等收入农户和高收入农户收入增长的影响存在差异,中等收入农户和高收入农户收入增长的幅度更大;贫困村基础设施和村委会一年开会次数有利于互助资金促进试点贫困村农户收入的增长。  相似文献   
5.
The introduction of income management – sometimes called welfare quarantining – for subgroups of Australian income security recipients within the Northern Territory, and subsequently a number of other trial sites, has provoked considerable contention. The present study critically examined the arguments and evidence presented in favour of income management with particular reference to the guidelines, methodology and findings of official evaluations conducted by the Commonwealth Government. We identified five key issues that do not seem to be adequately addressed by official evaluations: choice and control, the quality of decision making, consultation with local community members, structural disadvantage and economic cost. We used these concepts to develop a proposed alternative model for assessing the impact of income management on local communities.  相似文献   
6.
我国集体林权制度改革后,虽然林农林地经营的生产积极性大为提高,但林地的分散化使得林业经营的规模效应下降。江西是林权改革的试点省份,共有94个示范性林农合作组织。依据从这些组织获得的数据进行回归分析后的结果显示:林农合作组织的规模、林权改革制度和林农经营范围对合作组织的收入均有一定程度的影响。因此,政府应鼓励林农合作组织进行规模扩张,给予合作组织资金和财政上的支持,为多种合作组织模式创造良好环境,加强对合作组织的内部管理,为合作组织向下游产业发展提供支持。  相似文献   
7.
The returns from individual account pension plans are subject to fluctuations in capital markets. This increases income uncertainty for the beneficiary and exposes individuals to the risk of fluctuations in the economy in general and the stock market in particular. A minimum pension guarantee is a way to avoid this pitfall by providing a minimum annuity regardless of the actual investment performance of individual accounts. In this article, we present a cost analysis of a minimum benefit guarantee mechanism for the voluntary Individual Pension System in Turkey. We examine the cost estimates and the probability of providing guaranteed payments under various economic and demographic assumptions.  相似文献   
8.
使用“2009年中国社会网络与职业经历调查”(JSNET2009)广州、上海、厦门、济南和西安五城市数据,检验了改革以后影响中国城市劳动者职业流动模式以及经济地位获得的因素。研究结果表明,高学历劳动者与低学历劳动者群体处于两个分割的劳动力市场中,他们的经济地位获得路径完全不同。对于低学历劳动者,职业流动是提升他们收入水平的最重要因素,而人力资本因素(受教育年限和工作经验)对他们的收入没有影响。高学历劳动者的情况刚好相反,职业流动对收入获得没有任何作用,影响他们收入分层的最重要因素是人力资本。本研究揭示了转型期中国城市地区不同劳动力市场劳动者的经济地位获得的二元路径模式。  相似文献   
9.
通过对2001—2009年安徽省城乡居民收入来源的实证分析,结果表明安徽省城乡居民收入在总体增长较快的同时,还存在收入水平相对较低、收入差距不断扩大、收入结构不够优化等突出问题;在分析了问题存在原因的基础上,最后提出了相应的解决思路。  相似文献   
10.
Rapid sexual involvement may have adverse long‐term implications for relationship quality. This study examined the tempo of sexual intimacy and subsequent relationship quality in a sample of married and cohabiting men and women. Data come from the Marital and Relationship Survey, which provides information on nearly 600 low‐ to moderate‐income couples living with minor children. Over one third of respondents became sexually involved within the first month of the relationship. Bivariate results suggested that delaying sexual involvement was associated with higher relationship quality across several dimensions. The multivariate results indicated that the speed of entry into sexual relationships was negatively associated with marital quality, but only among women. The association between relationship tempo and relationship quality was largely driven by cohabitation. Cohabiting may result in poorer quality relationship because rapid sexual involvement early in the romantic relationship is associated with entrance into shared living.  相似文献   
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