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Abstract

The purpose of this paper is to identify the major sources of occupational stress experienced by British prison officers and to examine their effects on overall job stress and job satisfaction. Eighty-one officers from HM Prison, Maidstone, took part in a questionnaire study, and three main findings emerged. First, lack of stiff and resources were ranked as the most likely sources of stress, and areas of the prison where confrontations with inmates were most likely to occur were ranked as the most stressful locations. Second, officers who reported the highest levels of job stress overall had the lowest job satisfaction and the greatest wish for more emphasis on control and security of inmates. Third, when the sources of stress were factor-analysed and used to predict overall job stress and job satisfaction, using multiple regression, the sìngle most important predictor of job stress was found to be the factor labelled 'confrontations with inmates' and, for dissatisfaction with the job, it was 'poor morale and resentments'. The paper discusses the theoretical implications of the findings.  相似文献   
3.
ABSTRACT

Current research on return to work (RTW) for employees with common mental disorders suffers from two limitations. First, research mostly focuses on the influence of resources during the absence period ignoring the resources which may facilitate sustainable RTW, i.e. employees continuing to work and thrive at work post-return. Second, research tends to view the work and non-work domains separately and fails to consider the interaction of resources at the individual, group, leader and organisational levels, once back at work. In the present position paper, we present an integrated framework and a preliminary definition of sustainable RTW. Based on current occupational health psychology theory and existing research on RTW, we develop ten propositions for the resources in and outside work, which may promote sustainable RTW. In addition to the individual, group, leader, and organisational levels, we also argue for the importance of the overarching context, i.e. the societal context and the culture and legislation that may promote sustainable RTW. Our framework raises new questions that need to be addressed to enhance our understanding of how key stakeholders can support employees with common mental health disorders staying and thriving at work.  相似文献   
4.
Abstract

The relationship between accidents and the time of day is not entirely clear. Although there is considerable evidence that performance is poorest in the early morning hours compared to at all other times, the degree to which this is translated into accidents is not understood. In this study work-related fatal accidents were analysed to determine whether the causes of these accidents vary with time. The analysis used a classification and coding system devised to describe the wider circumstances of the causes of fatalities. In terms of absolute numbers, fatalities were most common in the late morning or early afternoon. When these results were expressed in terms of the estimated number of workers at work, the proportion of fatal accidents occurring at night was more than double that occurring during the day. Behavioural factors were the most common cause of fatalities at all times, but most common in the early hours of the morning. Further analysis of the nature of the behavioural involvement showed that errors in automatic processing (skill-based errors) were the most common types of error and did not vary much with time of day. Rule-based errors were most common during the day whereas knowledge-based errors occurred mainly in the afternoon and night shifts. These results cast some doubt on the assumption that there is a direct relationship between the previously observed variations in performance across time and the ultimate safety outcome.  相似文献   
5.
The abundant literature on welfare state policies, regimes or ‘worlds’ has been only limitedly interested in unemployment protection, and even less in youth unemployment protection. What is clearly lacking in the literature is an updated analysis of the most recent policies developed in European countries targeting youth. This mini‐symposium aims to fill in this gap by presenting findings from an EU‐funded research project entitled ‘Youth, Unemployment and Exclusion in Europe: A Multidimensional Approach to Understanding the Conditions and Prospects for Social and Political Integration of Young Unemployed’ (YOUNEX). The main aim of the research endeavour was to develop theory and contribute to empirical knowledge concerning the social and political exclusion of unemployed youth in Europe.  相似文献   
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在国际金融危机的大背景下,加强对金融企业的危机管理和处置事关整个金融体系的健康平稳运转。目前我国现行的金融企业危机处置法律制度在配套机制建设方面存在一些不足,配套机制中比较重要的,当属风险预警机制、风险补偿机制、对中小金融企业的保护机制等。围绕这一问题进行了深入分析,并结合国外成熟金融企业危机处置的立法实践,对我国相关问题提出针对性的建议。  相似文献   
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以子博弈完美纳什均衡作为分析工具,分析了电子商务与物流服务发展的不均衡现象,并将网购过程中卖方与快递企业之间的讨价还价过程与贴现因子联系起来,通过模型在节假日期间的应用,从贴现因子对均衡解的影响分析了卖方与快递企业的利益变化。最终得出结论,贴现因子是影响卖方与快递企业所承担的快递费用的重要因素并提出了相应建议。  相似文献   
8.
生物安全实验室活毒废水处理工艺研究   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
目的在借鉴吸收国外生物安全实验室(BSL)活毒废水处理工艺技术的基础上,结合我国国情,研究开发节能、环保、安全型成套处理技术工艺和设备,实现关键技术和产品国产化。方法处理系统采用序批式工艺,通过高温高压方式消毒灭菌。结果该处理工艺的技术指标:灭菌温度100~150℃(可调),加热时间≤30rain,灭菌时间30—120min(可调);处理后排放指标:活微生物为0,温度≤40℃,pH=6~9。结论该处理工艺整体设计简便灵活,符合BSL设计越简单越安全的理念,适合我国国情,可用于生物安全三级、四级实验室(BSL一3,-4)活毒废水处理。  相似文献   
9.
Most disciplines and subdisciplines consider their particular specialization to be valuable in itself and superior to other disciplines. But compared with the huge leaps in the physical sciences, the social/behavioral sciences and humanities have made little progress. Since many of the physical science advances were the result of the merging of disciplines, perhaps interdisciplinarity should be tried. One path to connecting disciplines, subdisciplines, and micro‐macro levels is suggested by Spinoza's idea of part/whole methodology, exactly balancing concrete instances with abstract theses. Ideas by B. Pascal, A. Koestler, A. N. Whitehead, and E. O. Wilson may also be helpful. Any discipline, subdiscipline, or level can serve as a valuable stepping‐off place, but to advance further, integration with at least one other viewpoint may be necessary. Two brilliant examples are The Civilizing Process, by the sociologist Norbert Elias, and Freudian Repression, by the psychologist Michael Billig. Koestler's idea of “bi‐sociation” may prove to be particularly rewarding. The way that Virginia Woolf's depiction of role‐taking in interior monologue preceded the idea in social science is an extraordinary example. The need for integration may be the single most important issue facing social science, the humanities, and their subdisciplines. Given the scope of the social/behavioral problems faced by humanity, the sooner the better.  相似文献   
10.
于长永 《西北人口》2013,(6):117-122,126
文章基于2009年全国十个省份30个行政村1000余位农民的调查数据,从“依赖性一脆弱性一养老困境”的逻辑关系出发.以农民养老的经济依赖途径为切入点。利用Multinomial Logistic回归模型,实证分析了农民养老的脆弱性及其影响因素。结果显示,那些同时具备女性、年龄较大、养儿防老观念比较强、家庭收入比较低、没有儿子、家庭整劳力比较少、纯农户和所在村经济情况比较差特征的农民,是依赖性最强的农民,他们面临的养老脆弱性程度也最高。由于现实生活中。全部具备上述所有条件的农民毕竟是少数。但农村社会政策刺定部门可以根据农民满足上述条件的多寡.来判断其养老脆弱性程度的高低。并以此为依据选择农村社会政策的重点关注对象。  相似文献   
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